A neurotransmitter is a part of neurons that are there in the human brain. They are millions in numbers and work as a chemical messenger in different parts of the brain. In the brain, in different areas, different neurons are present, which work differently. Each neuron acts in a specific condition only, and because of these neurons, only the body can carry out various functions. They have a deep impact on motor movement, expression, balancing the body and almost every function that the body goes through. It is with the help of neurotransmitters that each neuron can communicate with another neuron. This process is a little complicated, but here is an attempt to explain it in simple words.
Every neuron has a receptor and transmitter with the help of which the signals can be sent or received signals can be understood rightly. Near every neuron, there is a small gap called Synapse. When a neuron passes any message that needs to go to the nearest other neurons, it has to pass through Synapse first, where coding and decoding of the message occur. It is like a lock and key system where each neuron act as a lock, and the transmission to the same acts as a key where only concerned neuron can have concerned transmission.
The role of neurotransmitters is much important, and it is truly complex to understand how these chemical messengers communicate with each other. A large portion of the human brain still needs to be explored by researchers, and one of these portions is neurons. They keep on sending and receiving the message for various reasons where the body needs to be moved. It may be about thinking something, playing a game, going through depression, feeling excited about an event or anything. Once the concerned message is cleared, there are different ways as per which the concerned neuron is deactivated.
- Diffusion: The first option to deactivate the chemical messenger neuron is diffusion. The concerned neurotransmitter is drifted away from the relevant receptor so it cannot pass the message again. It is again a chemical process.
- Degradation: This is another chemical process where the structure of the concerned neuron is changed so that the receptor cannot identify the message, and hence passing of the message is stopped.
- Reuptake: This is another system where the concerned neuron is taken back to the release center so that the same does not stay with the receptor, and hence message cannot be passed.
As it is known now that neurons are in the brain and play a major role in sending and receiving different signals, it can be presumed that in case of any trouble with this network, one may have to suffer various diseases related to the brain. In case there is no required amount of chemical for creating neurons or the amount of neurons is affected due to age, there can be several diseases that take place. Among such diseases, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Epilepsy are known. There are also other chemicals and drugs that affect the performance and role of neurons which must be taken care of by experts. Those addicted to alcohol and such substances may have trouble with their brain functions as neurons get affected due to the use of such substances. In the case of some drugs prescribed by experts for a specific medical condition, a function of neurons gets disturbed, affecting one’s psychiatric condition. Hence the moment one goes for such medication, he is asked to have some precautions for his activities.
Though neurons are present in the brain only, a small part of the human body, the exact role and number are still unknown. They are made of various chemicals that include protein, dopamine, glutamate, peptides, endorphins and oxytocin, histamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, and many more.
In certain conditions, these neurotransmitters cannot perform as they are supposed to be. It may be due to less amount of production. Hence, enough neurotransmitters are not available for a specific function; they are absorbed frequently and quickly due to a particular medical condition; if they are deactivated by an enzyme as a side effect of any medicine or even more of them are released than what is required by the body.